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An ionic compound is formed when an electron-donating species donates one or more electrons to the electron-accepting species. While a covalent compound is formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.

Whether a compound is ionic or covalent is the chemical nature of that compound. Barium hydroxide is also a chemical compound and Here in this article, we would discuss the chemical nature of barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2.

Is Barium Hydroxide Ionic or Covalent?

All compounds of barium metal are ionic. Barium hydroxide is also an ionic compound because the barium atom donates its electrons to each hydroxide ion. Also when metal and non-metal atoms come closer they form an ionic compound.

As we know in barium hydroxide, barium is a metal atom and the hydroxide ion is a non-metal so the resulting compound is ionic. The electrostatic charge on barium is 2+ and on hydroxide ion is -1.

The Formation of Barium Hydroxide Compound

Barium atoms contain [Xe] 6s2 electronic configuration. This means barium can lose the 6s2 electrons to gain noble gas configuration. It attains noble gas configuration by donating two electrons to the hydroxide ions.

Oxygen in the case of hydroxide ions contains seven electrons in its valence shell and it needs one electron to complete its octet. Hence each oxygen in OH ion accepts one electron from a barium atom and forms the ionic compound i.e., barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2.


Properties of Polar Compound

The total charge present on barium hydroxide is zero because both ions compensate/cancel each other’s charges. The VSEPR theory is evident that the geometry of barium hydroxide compound is octahedral and possesses d2sp3 hybridization.

The bond angle of each bond is 900o and is polar. Due to the polar nature of barium hydroxide, it is soluble in polar solvents (Like dissolves Like) and forms dipole.

Barium hydroxide is also a good conductor of heat and electricity (in solution and molten state) because of its polar nature. It is neutralized by weak organic acids such as acetic acid. Barium hydroxide is exhibited in cubic crystal lattice form.

Frequently asked questions

Q 1: How many Ionic and Covalent Bonds are present in Barium Hydroxide?

Ans: There are two ionic bonds present in barium hydroxide, each OH-1 with Ba2+. No covalent bond is present in the barium hydroxide compound.

Q 2: What is the Chemical Nature of Hydroxide Ions?

Ans: The hydroxide ion is polyatomic. It is formed when an oxygen atom is attached to a hydrogen atom via a single bond.

Q 3: What is the Most Common Method of Preparing Barium Hydroxide?

Ans: The most common and cheapest method of preparing barium hydroxide is through barium oxide. Barium oxide is dissolved in water to get barium hydroxide.

Q 4: What are the Electronic Configurations of Barium Metal and Oxygen Atom?

Ans: The atomic number of barium is 56 and it electronic configuration is given below

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2.

The atomic number of oxygen is 16 and the electronic configuration is given below

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6.

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